The greatest social reformer and statesman of the 19th Century, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born on 17th October 1817.
"From the seed which we sow today there may spring up a mighty tree whose branches, like those of the banyan of the soil, shall in their turn stick firm roots into the earth and themselves send forth new and vigorous saplings. This college may expand into a university whose sons shall go forth throughout the length and breadth of the land to preach the gospel of free enquiry, of large hearted toleration, and of pure morality." -- Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
Shopenhauer quotes an old German couplet in his Essays and Aphorisms, which purports to mean that it is the fate of the truly great that they are recognized and understood only when they are no more in this world. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was no exception to this rule. In his lifetime, he had to face the burgeoning tide of stiff opposition from almost every possible quarter while treading on the thorny path of social upliftment.
The greatest Muslim reformer and statesman of the 19th Century, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born in Delhi on October 17, 1817. Sir Syed's greatest achievement was his Aligarh Movement, which was primarily an educational venture. He established Gulshan School at Muradabad in 1859, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a scientific society in 1864. When Sir Syed was posted at Aligarh in 1867, he started the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental School in the city.
Sir Syed left for London on April 1, 1869 to study the English method of education. While at London, Sir Syed came across a book, 'Life of Mohammed' by Sir William Moore. To refute the charges against the Prophet, he wrote a book 'Khutbat-i-Ahmadiyah'. On coming back to India he accelerated his efforts for establishment of an institution, on the model of Oxford and Cambridge universities. On his return home he decided to make M. A. O. High School on the pattern of British boarding schools. The School later became a college in 1875. The status of University was given to the college after the death of Sir Syed in 1920. M. A. O. High School, College and University played a big role in the awareness of the Muslims of South Asia.
In 1870, Sir Syed started the famous journal 'Tahzeebul Akhlaq' (Mohammedan Social Reformer). A great crusader against conservatism, traditionalism and superstitions, Sir Syed set the aim of journal to ameliorate the social condition of Muslims. It also sought to create a liberalized and progressive religious outlook. Such fruitful thought annoyed the conservative elements within the community, which in turn brought opprobrium on Sir Syed. Abuses were hurled at him and fatwas of Kufr issued against him. However, the storm of opposition failed to dampen his spirits and he carried on with his mission of religious and social reform with the religious and social thinking of Muslims.
The early years of Sir Syed's life were spent in the atmosphere of the family of a Mughal noble. There was nothing in young Syed's habits or behavior to suggest that he was different from other boys, though he was distinguished on account of his extraordinary physique. As a boy he learnt swimming and archery, which were favorite sports of the well-to-do class in those days. His family on the maternal and paternal side had close contacts with the Mughal court. His maternal grandfather, Khwajah Farid was a Wazir in the court of Akbar Shah II. His paternal grandfather Syed Hadi held a mansab and the title of Jawwad Ali Khan in the court of Alamgir II. His father, Mir Muttaqi, had been close to Akbar Shah since the days of his prince-hood. Syed Ahmad's mother, Aziz-un-Nisa, took a great deal of interest in the education and upbringing of her son. She imposed a rigid discipline on him and Sir Syed himself admitted that her supervision counted for much in the formation of his character.
Sir Syed received his education under the old system. He learnt to read the Quran under a female teacher at his home. After this, he was put in the charge of Maulvi Hamid-ud-Din, the first of his private tutors. Having completed a course in Persian and Arabic, he took to the study of mathematics, which was a favorite subject of the maternal side of his family. He later became interested in medicine and studied some well-known books on the subject. However, he soon gave it up without completing the full course. At the age of 18 or 19 his formal education came to an end but he continued his studies privately. He started taking a keen interest in the literary gatherings and cultural activities of the city.
The death of his father in 1838 left the family in difficulties. Thus young Syed was compelled at the early age of 21 to look for a career. He decided to enter the service of the East India Company. He started his career as Sarishtedar in a court of law. He became Naib Munshi in 1839 and Munshi in 1841. In 1858 he was promoted and appointed as Sadar-us-Sadur at Muradabad. In 1867 he was promoted and posted as the judge of the Small Causes Court. He retired in 1876. He spent the rest of his life for Aligarh College and the Muslims of South Asia.
Unlike other Muslim leaders of his time, Sir Syed was of the view that Muslims should have friendship with the British if they want to take their due rights. To achieve this he did a lot to convince the British that Muslims were not against them. On the other hand, he tried his best to convince the Muslims that if they did not befriend the British, they could not achieve their goals. Sir Syed wrote many books and journals to remove the misunderstandings between Muslims and the British. The most significant of his literary works were his pamphlets "Loyal Muhammadans of India" and "Cause of Indian Revolt". He also wrote a commentary on the Bible, in which he attempted to prove that Islam is the closest religion to Christianity.
Sir Syed asked the Muslims of his time not to participate in politics unless and until they got modern education. He was of the view that Muslims could not succeed in the field of western politics without knowing the system. He was invited to attend the first session of the Indian National Congress and to join the organization but he refused to accept the offer. He also asked the Muslims to keep themselves away from the Congress and predicted that the party would prove to be a pure Hindu party in the times to come. By establishing the Muhammadan Educational Conference, he provided Muslims with a platform on which he could discuss their political problems. Sir Syed is known as the founder of Two-Nation Theory in the modern era.
In the beginning of 1898 he started keeping abnormally quiet. For hours he would not utter a word to friends who visited him. Medical aid proved ineffective. His condition became critical on 24th of March. On the morning of March 27, a severe headache further worsened it. He expired the same evening in the house of Haji Ismail Khan, where he had been shifted 10 or 12 days earlier. He was buried the following afternoon in the compound of the Mosque of MAO College. He was mourned by a large number of friends and admirers both within and outside South Asia.
"Sir Syed Ahmad Khan last message to aligarians and all the mankind : you have reached a particular stage and remember one thing that when i undertook the task, there was criticism al around against me, abuses were hurled upon me, life had become so difficult for so I aged before age lost my hair my eyesight but not my VISION………my vision never dimmed my determination never failed I built this institution for you and I am sure you will carry the light of this institution far and wide darkness will disappear from all around".